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The concept of Leaderless Resistance was proposed by Col. Ulius Louis 
Amoss, who was the founder of International Service of Information 
Incorporated, located in Baltimore, Maryland. Col. Amoss died more than fifteen 
years ago, but during his life was a tireless opponent of communism, as well as a 
skilled Intelligence Officer. Col. Amoss first wrote of Leaderless Resistance on 
April 17, 1962. His theories of organization were primarily directed against the 
threat of eventual Communist take-over in the United States. The present writer, 
with the benefit of having lived many years beyond Col. Amoss, has taken his 
theories and expounded upon them. Col. Amoss feared the Communists. This 
author fears the federal government. Communism now represents a threat to no 
one in the United States, while federal tyranny represents a threat to everyone . 
The writer has joyfully lived long enough to see the dying breaths of 
communism, but may, unhappily, remain long enough to see the last grasps of 
freedom in America. 

In the hope that, somehow, America can still produce the brave sons and 
daughters necessary to fight off ever increasing persecution and oppression, this 
essay is offered. Frankly, it is too close to call at this point. Those who love 
liberty, and believe in freedom enough to fight for it are rare today, but within 
the bosom of every once great nation, there remains secreted, the pearls of former greatness. They are there. I have looked into their 
sparking eyes; sharing a brief moment in time with them as I passed through this life. Relished their friendship, endured their pain, 
and they mine. We are a band of brothers, native to the soil gaining strength one from another as we have rushed head long into a 
battle that all the weaker, timid men, say we can not win. Perhaps. ..but then again, perhaps we can. It's not over till the last freedom 
fighter is buried or imprisoned, or the same happens to those who would destroy their freedom. 

Barring any cataclysmic events, the struggle will yet go on for years. The 
passage of time will make it clear to even the more slow among us that the 
government is the foremost threat to the life, and liberty of the folk. The 
government will no doubt make today's oppressiveness look like grade school 
work compared to what they have planned in the future. Meanwhile, there are 
those of us who continue to hope that somehow the few can do what the many 
have not. We are cognizant that before things get better they will certainly get 
worse as government shows a willingness to use ever more severe police state measures against dissidents. This changing situation 
makes it clear that those who oppose state repression must be prepared to alter, adapt, and modify their behavior, strategy, and 
tactics as circumstances warrant. Failure to consider new methods and implement them as necessary will make the government's 
efforts at suppression uncomplicated. It is the duty of every patriot to make the tyrant's life miserable. When one fails to do so he not 
only fails himself, but his people. 

It is the duty o f every 
patriot to make the tyrant's 
life miserable. 

With this in mind, current methods of resistance to tyranny employed by those who love our race, culture, and heritage must pass a 
litmus test of soundness. Methods must be objectively measured as to their effectiveness, as well as to whether they make the 

government's intention of repression more possible or more difficult. Those not working to aid our objectives must be discarded or 
the government benefits from our failure to do so. 

As honest men who have banded together into groups or associations of a political or religious nature are falsely labeled "domestic 
terrorists" or "cultists" and suppressed, it will become necessary to consider other methods of organization— or as the case may very 
well call for: non-organization. One should keep in mind that it is not in the government's interest to eliminate all groups. Some few 
must remain in order to perpetuate the smoke and mirrors vision for the masses that America is a "free democratic country" where 
dissent is allowed. Most organizations, however, that possess the potential for effective resistance will not be allowed to continue. 
Anyone who is so naive as to believe the most powerful government on earth will not crush any who pose a real threat to that power, 
should not be active, but rather, at home studying political history. 

The question as to who is to be left alone and who is not, will be answered by how groups and individuals deal with several factors 
such as: avoidance of conspiracy plots, rejection of feeble minded malcontents, insistence upon quality of the participants, avoidance 
of all contact with the front men for the federals— the news media— and, finally, camouflage (which can be defined as the ability to 
blend in the public's eye the more committed groups of resistance with mainstream "kosher" associations that are generally seen as 
harmless.) Primarily though, whether any organization is allowed to continue in the future will be a matter of how big a threat a 
group represents. Not a threat in terms of armed might or political ability, for there is none of either for the present, but rather, threat 
in terms of potentiality. It is potential the federals fear most. Whether that potential exists in an individual or group is incidental. The 
federals measure potential threat in terms of what might happen given a situation conducive to action on the part of a restive 
organization or individual. Accurate intelligence gathering allows them to assess the potential. Showing one's hand before the bets 
are made, is a sure way to loose. 

The movement for freedom is rapidly approaching the point where for many people, the option of belonging to a group will be 
nonexistent. For others, group membership will be a viable option for only the immediate future. Eventually, and perhaps much 
sooner than most believe possible, the price paid for membership will exceed any perceived benefit. But for now, some of the groups 
that do exist often serve a useful purpose either for the newcomer who can be indoctrinated into the ideology of the struggle, or for 
generating positive propaganda to reach potential freedom fighters. It is sure that, for the most part, this struggle is rapidly becoming 
a matter of individual action, each of its participants making a private decision in the quietness of his heart to resist: to resist by any 
means necessary. It is hard to know what others will do, for no man truly knows another man's heart. It is enough to know what one 
himself will do. A great teacher once said "know thyself." Few men really do, but let each of us, promise ourselves, not to go quietly 
to the fate our would-be masters have planned. 

The concept of Leaderless Resistance is nothing less than a fundamental departure in theories of organization. The orthodox 
scheme of organization is diagrammatically represented by the pyramid, with the mass at the bottom and the leader at the top. This 
fundamental of organization is to be seen not only in armies, which are of course, the best illustration of the pyramid structure, with 
the mass of soldiery, the privates, at the bottom responsible to corporals who are in turn responsible to sergeants, and so on up the 
entire chain of command to the generals at the top. But the same structure is seen in corporations, ladies' garden clubs and in our 
political system itself. This orthodox "pyramid" scheme of organization is to be seen basically in all existing political, social and 
religious structures in the world today from the Federal government to the Roman Catholic Church. The Constitution of the United 
States, in the wisdom of the Founders, tried to sublimate the essential dictatorial nature of pyramidal organization by dividing 
authority into three: executive, legislative and judicial. But the pyramid remains essentially untouched. 

This scheme of organization, the pyramid, is however, not only useless, but extremely dangerous for the participants when it is 
utilized in a resistance movement against state tyranny. Especially is this so in technologically advanced societies where electronic 
surveillance can often penetrate the structure revealing its chain of command. Experience has revealed over and over again that anti- 
state, political organizations utilizing this method of command and control are easy prey for government infiltration, entrapment, 
and destruction of the personnel involved. This has been seen repeatedly in the United States where pro-government infiltrators or 
agent provocateurs weasel their way into patriotic groups and destroy them from within. 

In the pyramid type of organization, an infiltrator can destroy anything which is beneath 
his level of infiltration and often those above him as well. If the traitor has infiltrated at th 
top, then the entire organization from the top down is compromised and may be traduced 
at will. 

An alternative to the pyramid type of organization is the cell system. In the past, many 
political groups (both right and left) have used the cell system to further their objectives. 

Two examples will suffice. During the American Revolution "committees of 
correspondence" were formed throughout the Thirteen colonies. 

Their purpose was to subvert the government and thereby aid the cause of independence. 

The "Sons of Liberty", who made a name for themselves dumping government taxed tea 
into the harbor at Boston, were the action arm of the committees of correspondence. Each 
committee was a secret cell that operated totally independently of the other cells. 

Information on the government was passed from committee to committee, from colony to 
colony, and then acted upon on a local basis. Yet even in these bygone days of poor 
communication, of weeks to months for a letter to be delivered, the committees without 
any central direction whatsoever, were remarkable similar in tactics employed to resist 
government tyranny. It was, as the first American patriots knew, totally unnecessary for 
anyone to give an order for anything. Information was made available to each committee, 
recent example of the cell system taken from the left wing of politics are the Communists. The Communist, in order to get around 
the obvious problems involved in pyramidal organization, developed to an art the cell system. They had numerous independent cells 
which operated completely isolated from one another and particularly with no knowledge of each other, but were orchestrated 
together by a central headquarters. For instance, during World War II, in Washington, it is known that there were at least six secret 
Communist cells operating at high levels in the United States government (plus all the open Communists who were protected and 
promoted by President Roosevelt), however, only one of the cells was rooted out and destroyed. How many more actually were 
operating no one can say for sure. 

The Communist cells which operated in the U.S until late 1991 under Soviet control could have at their command a leader, who held 
a social position which appeared to be very lowly. He could be, for example, a busboy in a restaurant, but in reality a colonel or a 
general in the Soviet Secret Service, the KGB. Under him could be a number of cells and a person active in one cell would almost 
never have knowledge of individuals who are active in another cell. The value of this is that while any one cell can be infiltrated, 
exposed or destroyed, such action will have no effect on the other cells; in fact, the members of the other cells will be supporting 
that cell which is under attack and ordinarily would lend very strong support to it in many ways. This is at least part of the reason, 
no doubt, that whenever in the past Communists were attacked in this country, support for them sprang up in many unexpected 

The efficient and effective operation of a cell system after the Communist model, is of course, dependent upon central direction, 
which means impressive organization, funding from the top, and outside support, all of which the Communists had. Obviously, 
American patriots have none of these things at the top or anywhere else, and so an effective cell organization based upon the Soviet 
system of operation is impossible. 

Two things become clear from the above discussion. First, that the pyramid type of organization can be penetrated quite easily and it 
thus is not a sound method of organization in situations where the government has the resources and desire to penetrate the structure; 
which is the situation in this country. Secondly, that the normal qualifications for the cell structure based upon the Red model does 
not exist in the U.S. for patriots. This understood, the question arises "What method is left for those resisting state tyranny?" The 
answer comes from Col. Amoss who proposed the "Phantom Cell" mode of organization. Which he described as Leaderless 
Resistance. A system of organization that is based upon the cell organization, but does not have any central control or direction, that 
is in fact almost identical to the methods used by the Committees of Correspondence during the American Revolution. Utilizing the 
Leaderless Resistance concept, all individuals and groups operate independently of each other, and never report to a central 
headquarters or single leader for direction or instruction, as would those who belong to a typical pyramid organization. 

At first glance, such a type of organization seems unrealistic, primarily because there appears to be no organization. The natural 
question thus arises as to how are the "Phantom cells" and individuals to cooperate with each other when there is no 
intercommunication or central direction? The answer to this question is that participants in a program of Leaderless Resistance 
through phantom cell or individual action must know exactly what they are doing, and how to do it. It becomes the responsibility of 
the individual to acquire the necessary skills and information as to what is to be done. This is by no means as impractical as it 
appears, because it is certainly true that in any movement, all persons involved have the same general outlook, are acquainted with 

the same philosophy, and generally react to given situations in similar ways. The pervious history of the committees of 
correspondence during the American Revolution show this to be true. 

Since the entire purpose of Leaderless Resistance is to defeat state tyranny (at least insofar as this essay is concerned), all members 
of phantom cells or individuals will tend to react to objective events in the same way through usual tactics of resistance. Organs of 
information distribution such as newspapers, leaflets, computers, etc., which are widely available to all, keep each person informed 
of events, allowing for a planned response that will take many variations. No one need issue an order to anyone. Those idealist truly 
committed to the cause of freedom will act when they feel the time is ripe, or will take their cue from others who precede them. 
While it is true that much could be said against this type of structure as a method of resistance, it must be kept in mind that 
Leaderless Resistance is a child of necessity. The alternatives to it have been show to be unworkable or impractical. Leaderless 
Resistance has worked before in the American Revolution, and if the truly committed put it to use for themselves, it will work now. 

It goes almost without saying that Leaderless Resistance leads to very small or even one man cells 
of resistance. Those who join organizations to play "let's pretend" or who are "groupies" will 
quickly be weeded out. While for those who are serious about their opposition to federal despotism, 
this is exactly what is desired. 

From the point of view of tyrants and would be potentates in the federal bureaucracy and police 
agencies, nothing is more desirable than that those who oppose them be UNIFIED in their 
command structure, and that every person who opposes them belong to a pyramid type group. Such 
groups and organizations are an easy kill. Especially in light of the fact that the Justice (sic) 

Department promised in 1987 that there would never be another group that opposed them that they 
did not have at least one informer in. These federal "friends of government" are intelligence agents. 

They gather information that can be used at the whim of a federal D.A. to prosecute. The line of 
battle has been drawn. Patriots are required therefore, to make a conscious decision to either aid the government in its illegal spying, 
by continuing with old methods of organization and resistance, or to make the enemie's job more difficult by implementing effective 

Now there will, no doubt, be mentally handicapped people out there who, while standing at a podium with an American flag draped 
in the background, and a lone eagle soaring in the sky above, will state emphatically in their best sounding red, white, and blue 
voice, "So what if the government is spying? We are not violating any laws." Such crippled thinking by any serious person is the 
best example that there is a need for special education classes. The person making such a statement is totally out of contact with 
political reality in this country, and unfit for leadership of any thing more than a dog sleigh in the Alaskan wilderness. The old "Born 
on the fourth of July" mentality that has influenced so much of the American patriot's thinking in the past will not save him from the 
government in the future. "Reeducation" for non-thinkers of this type will take place in the federal prison system where there are no 
flags or eagles, but abundance of men who were "not violating any law." 

Most groups who "unify" their disparate associates into a single structure have short political lives. Therefore, those movement 
leaders constantly calling for unity of organization rather than the desirable unity of purpose, usually fall into one of three categories. 

They may not be sound political tacticians, but rather, just committed men who feel unity would help their cause, while not realizing 
that the government would greatly benefit from such efforts. The Federal objective, to imprison or destroy all who oppose them, is 
made easier in pyramid organizations. Or perhaps, they do not fully understand the struggle they are involved in and that the 
government they oppose has declared a state of war against those fighting for faith, folk, freedom and constitutional liberty. Those in 
power will use any means to rid themselves of opposition. The third class calling for unity and let us hope this is the minority of the 
three, are men more desirous of the supposed power that a large organization would bestow, than of actually achieving their stated 

Conversely, the last thing Federal snoops would have, if they had any choice in the matter, is a thousand different small phantom 
cells opposing them. It is easy to see why. Such a situation is an intelligence nightmare for a government intent upon knowing 
everything they possibly can about those who oppose them. The Federals, able to amass overwhelming strength of numbers, 
manpower, resources, intelligence gathering, and capability at any given time, need only a focal point to direct their anger. A single 
penetration of a pyramid type of organization can lead to the destruction of the whole. Whereas, Leaderless Resistance presents no 
single opportunity for the Federals to destroy a significant portion of the Resistance. 

With the announcement by the Department of Justice (sic) that 300 FBI agents formerly assigned to watching Soviet spies in the US 
(domestic counter intelligence) are now to be used to "combat crime", the federal government is preparing the way for a major 

assault upon those persons opposed to their policies. Many anti-government groups dedicated to the preservation of the America of 
our forefathers can expect shortly to feel the brunt of a new federal assault upon liberty. 

It is clear, therefore, that it is time to rethink traditional strategy and tactics when it comes to opposing a modern police state. 
America is quickly moving into a long dark night of police state tyranny, where the rights now accepted by most as being 
inalienable will disappear. Let the coming night be filled with a thousand points of resistance. Like the fog which forms when 
conditions are right and disappears when they are not, so must the resistance to tyranny be. 

"If every person has the right to defend— even by force— his person , his liberty, and his property, then it follows that a group of men 
have the right to organize and support a common force to protect these rights constantly . " —The Law. Frederick Bastiat Paris, 1850. 

Editors Note: This essay was written by Louis Beam in 1983 and published at that time. Republished above in 1992. 1 do not take credit for the theories 
expounded upon here, Col. Amoss deserves the credit for his brilliant analysis and insightful thinking. 

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